BIOFOULING AND IAS

The introduction and establishment of Invasive Aquatic Species (IAS) is considered to be one of the greatest threats to the world’s freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems. Biofouling is the accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, or small animals on wet surfaces that have a mechanical function, causing structural or other functional deficiencies. Biofouling has been identified as one of the key pathways for the transfer of IAS.

GHG EMISSIONS

Biofouling on ships' hulls increases hull surface roughness, which in turn increases frictional resistance and ultimately increases fuel consumption and total GHG emissions